Earliest hang gliders

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Earliest hang gliders

While this history concentrates on the rediscovery of the hang glider in the second half of the 20th century, its foundations were laid by pioneers in Britain, Germany, the U.S.A., and other locations in the preceding century. Moreover, Chinese kite technology was ahead of western aerodynamic knowledge centuries before that.

Thanks to hang glider historian and pioneering designer and pilot Tony Prentice for much of the content of this page.

The word invention is too liberally used especially in the field of aviation. Nature got there long before man even existed and many man made “inventions” can be seen in the fossil records of flying pterosaurs and current day birds, bats and insects. The principle of the sailwing was developed to propel boats thousands of years ago, probably more by trial and error than by invention. Kites were also developed in China hundreds of years ago using the same principle.

Sir George Cayley

George Cayley glider drawings (public domain)
George Cayley glider drawings (public domain)

Sir George Cayley in the first half of the 19th century created a manned glider that flew and he laid down the fundamentals of flight.

George Cayley portrait
George Cayley

Lilienthal, Pilcher, and Chanute

Portrait of Otto Lilienthal
Portrait of Otto Lilienthal — Image by © Bettmann/CORBIS

Karl Wilhelm Otto Lilienthal designed, built, and flew a series of gliders in Germany during the last years of the 19th century.

Otto Lilienthal flying in about 1895
Otto Lilienthal flying in about 1895

Percy Pilcher (Britain) flew at about the same time as Lilienthal and designer Octave Chanute (U.S.A.) worked with volunteer test pilots in carrying on Otto’s work.

Chanute glider, 1896
Chanute glider, 1896 (no larger image available)

Tony Prentice's 1968 Lilienthal type hang glider
Tony Prentice’s 1968 Lilienthal type hang glider
Tony Prentice and his Lillienthal type hang glider, which he flew in 1968
Tony Prentice and his Lillienthal type hang glider, which he flew in 1968

See under External links later on this page for Tony’s YouTube channel, which includes digitized film of his Lillienthal type hang glider. Also see under External links for more recent flying replicas of Lilienthal’s gliders.

Lillienthal kite drawings
Lillienthal kite drawings

Lilienthal’s book Bird Flight as the basis of Aviation shows the typical cruciform kite with a crossbar that holds open the wing. The crossbar interferes with the sail, preventing the aerofoil from forming properly. Lilienthal was aware of this and illustrated a kite without the crossbar, which then permitted the aerofoil to form properly and improve its efficiency. It formed the same double conical shape that NASA engineer Francis Rogallo suggested shortly after World War 2, half a century later.

Wright brothers

Wright Brothers 1902 glider
Wilbur Wright in the brothers’ glider over the Kill Devil Hills, October 10th, 1902

When Orville and Wilbur Wright added engines and propellers to their 1902 glider the following year (the 1903 Wright Flyer being more practical than Hiram Maxim’s giant steam-powered airplane a few years before) they effectively killed hang gliding for the next half century and more. Two world wars and, immediately following the first of those, a virus pandemic that killed more people than were killed in both wars combined, together with the subsequent great economic depression doubtless contributed to humankind’s ingenuity being diverted away from hang gliding.

Ironically, the world’s longest established hang gliding school operates from this site. See the Kitty Hawk Kites page of this history.

Lavezzari and Jensen

Jan Lavezzari's 1904 hang glider
Jan Lavezzari’s 1904 hang glider

A few individuals kept alive the dream of running into the air and flying. One was Frenchman Jan Lavezzari, who flew a double lateen sail hang glider from the sand dunes at Berck-sur-Mer in 1904. Another was Volmer Jensen of Glendale, California, who designed, built, and flew hang gliders before World War 2.

Volmer Jensen, of Volmer Aircraft, built and flew his first hang glider in 1925, long before most of today’s birdmen were hatched.

— Paul Wahl writing in Popular Science, June 1972

Volmer Jensen's pre-war VJ-11, plans for which were advertised in 'Ground Skimmer' magazine in 1973
Volmer Jensen’s VJ-11, plans for which were advertised in Ground Skimmer magazine in 1973


On December 17, 1954, I made a thermal flight of more than one hour with the ‘Alita.’ I released at 500 meters AGL [1640 feet] and climbed up to 1200 meters AGL [3937 feet].

— Rogelio Bertolini writing in Vuelo Silencioso, the Argentina soaring magazine, March 1954

Horten III-f on display at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia
Horten III-f on display at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia

In Germany during World War 2, the Horten brothers developed this ‘flying wing’ tail-less glider: See Horten H III F under External links later on this page for this restoration. After designing a tail-less jet bomber with enough range to reach the USA, Reimar Horten fled to Argentina and developed a further series of tailless gliders, at least the first of which, the Alita, was in principle a hang glider.

Horten wing about to be transported in Argentina for its first flight  on February 7th, 1953
Horten HXa ‘Alita’ about to be transported for its first flight in Argentina on February 7th, 1953

The pilot of the Alita lay prone in the cockpit. Control was by elevons, with the pilot using a control stick. Later flight tests were launched by aero-tow.

These photos are from the Aviation Archives in Stuttgart, Germany, by whose permission they were used in Whole Air, June 1984.

Rogelio Bertolini with Horten glider at Cordoba, Argentina, on January 9th, 1954
Rogelio Bertolini with Horten ‘Alita’ glider at Cordoba, Argentina, on January 9th, 1954
Horten Alita tail-less rigid hang glider
Horten Alita, construction finished on June 30th, 1952

For notable derivatives of Horten’s work, see Mitchell Wing, about the B-10 Buzzard world record setting rigid hang glider of the late 1970s and other descendants of the Amerikabomber. See also Horten brothers under External links later on this page.


F.M. Rogallo and his daughter Carol in about 1950

NASA engineer Francis Rogallo was interested in developing the simplest possible aircraft and a fully flexible wing that could be put in the boot (trunk) of car was his aim. His 1948 patent showed just that with a membrane wing with cords and no solid structure. The idea was then put to NASA that such a wing could be used by space vehicles during re-entry instead of parachutes. The wing could then be steered to a landing area rather than wherever it might land out — usually at sea. The time scale to develop it exceeded that of the need for the space launches so it was dropped. All the development that had gone into these flexible wings was then published, including the rigid framed versions, photos of which went around the world and were seen by many would-be fliers.

That might be why it is called a Rogallo wing rather than a Lavezzari, Lee & Darrah, Dickenson, Palmer, Wanner, or Bach wing (for example).

Photo by Michel Moussier of the Ryan 'flying jeep' on the cover of a French magazine for insomniacs in May 1961
Photo by Michel Moussier of the Ryan ‘flying jeep’ on the cover of a magazine in May 1961

John Dickenson in Australia saw the NASA photos and he identified the Ryan powered aircraft in his letter to Rogallo as the one he saw before building his own towed ski kite. It has the rigid frame and weight shift control used in the Ryan research aircraft wing and used the trapeze bar from existing “flat” tow ski kites of the day. The result was a bi-conical sail with rigid leading edges, a triangular control frame, and the pilot in a swing-seat harness. (See Rogallo wing definitions and diagrams.)

Art based on a photo of Barry Palmer flying a polythene standard Rogallo in the summer of 1962
Art based on a photo of Barry Palmer flying a polythene standard Rogallo in the summer of 1962

Meanwhile, in a retrograde step, the early hang glider experimenters in California such as Barry Palmer used the parallel bars type hang cage, which afforded much inferior control. Nonetheless, Palmer’s next glider was fitted with a ‘ski lift type of seat’ attached to the keel with a home-made universal joint. ‘A single stick projected down from the wing and carried the structural support.’ (*) That T bar structure was the equivalent of a triangular control frame for weight shift control.

This photo shows the ‘standard Rogallo’ flex-wing hang glider with a triangular control frame and the pilot in a harness that allows full weight-shift control. Modern flex-wings are refinements of this concept.

Tony Prentice, who supplied much of the historical detail on this page, flying the South Downs in 1973

The wing in the photo was the first that Tony Prentice made with metal tubes. His previous hang gliders were all made from bamboo, the first being around 1960. Although he is reluctant to make any such claim, that makes Tony possibly the first to design and build a working human-carrying Rogallo wing. See under External links later on this page for Tony’s YouTube channel, which includes digitized film this wing in flight.

Author’s note: The term Rogallo wing is used on these pages in its retrospective sense, meaning a bi-conical wing (or bi-cylindrical or semi-cylindrical) that keeps its aerodynamic shape as a result of the airflow around it. Therefore, using that definition, the 1910 patent — two years before F.M. Rogallo was born — is a Rogallo. Tony Prentice built his first such craft in 1960 with no knowledge of Rogallo’s work.


This topic continues in Hang gliding before 1973.

Rogallo wing definitions and diagrams

Space flight and hang gliding

External links

A History of Hang Gliding: How the sport started and spread across the world by Mark Woodhams (Amazon search)

Big Blue Sky – The history of modern hang gliding – the first extreme sport! — 2008 video by Bill Liscomb on YouTube starting at 3 minutes 3 seconds

British Hang Gliding History by Terry Aspinall

Correcting History, Who Invented The Modern Hang Glider—free e-book by Graeme Henderson and Terry Aspinall

Hang gliding Wikipedia entry

Hanggliding/Zeilvliegen part 1: Video on YouTube about Reinhold Platz. Narration by prominent European hang glider pilot Bart Doets is Dutch.

Hanggliding/Zeilvliegen part 2

History of hang gliding Wikipedia entry

Horten brothers Wikipedia entry

Horten H III F tail-less glider in World War 2, in the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum

Lilienthal and Wright gliders flying together for the first time in history! on Kitty Hawk Kites YouTube channel

Lilienthal-Gleiter: Fliegen wie vor 125 Jahren | Gut zu wissen | BR video on YouTube

Otto Lillienthal biplane replica 2019 (video)

Otto Lilienthal’s First Film video on YouTube

The Jacaranda Festival 1963 and the Fight of the first Modern Hang Glider by Graeme Henderson and Terry Aspinall

Tony Prentice YouTube channel including digitized film of his 1960s and 1970s hang gliders


The American Experience chapter by Dan Poynter in Hang Gliding by Martin Hunt and David Hunn, 1977

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