Hang gliding before 1973
…there is less margin for error in hang gliding than in almost anything else a person might attempt in life.
— Instructor Ken de Russy interviewed by Carol Price in Hang Gliding magazine, November 1980
While this history of hang gliding concentrates on the rediscovery of the hang glider in the second half of the 20th century, its foundations were laid by pioneers in Britain, Germany, the U.S.A., and other locations during the preceding century. Those foundations are described briefly in Earliest hang gliders.
Most of the images on this page are artistic derivations of contemporary photos. See Copyright of early hang gliding photos.
I now possessed the world’s cheapest aircraft — the materials cost under 11 dollars.
— Barry Palmer quoted in the British hang gliding magazine SkyWings, May 2011
There is film of Palmer flying an earlier version of this glider in December 1961 in Bill Liscomb’s 2008 documentary Big Blue Sky (see under External links later on this page). He also experimented with engines attached; see Early powered ultralights, which includes a photo of the powered Rogallo that, ironically, inspired the design of his first unpowered hang glider.
I contacted Paul Bikle, Director of NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center, sending him a film clip and stills of the craft in flight.
— Barry Palmer, SkyWings, May 2011
Paul Bikle was also a sailplane (glider) pilot who held two world height records, one of which still stands as of 2011. One of the projects under his control was a powered Rogallo wing. (See Paresev in Space flight and hang gliding.) Bikle’s position in that pre-internet world enabled him to act as a hub for Barry Palmer, Richard Miller, Francis Rogallo and others to contact each other, thereby facilitating the birth of modern hang gliding.
These kite-shaped wings are known as Rogallos, after Francis ‘F.M.’ Rogallo, the NASA engineer most closely associated with development efforts by the space agency in putting the bi-conical flex-wing to use. Barry Palmer, Dave Cronk, Roy Haggard, Taras Kiceniuk Jr, the Wills brothers, along with other early adopters of the Rogallo wing hang glider, used the parallel bar hang frame initially. In contrast, Australian John Dickenson built a Rogallo wing and, instead of the parallel bars, he used a swing seat and a cable-braced control frame.
I was running a parachute loft at the Oakland Airport when in walked Miller in early 1964 searching for materials for his ‘Bamboo Butterfly.’ This particularly literate sky dreamer knew where he was going, but I am not sure he knew how he was going to get there.
— Dan Poynter in Hang Gliding by Martin Hunt and David Hunn, 1977
In March 1967 Emil Riesel of Saratoga, California, began a newsletter, Low and Slow and Out of Control. Mentioned in the first issue is Richard Miller flying his ‘Bamboo Butterfly’ Rogallo from the dunes at Dockweiler State Park on January 16, 1966. (1)
In the landmark 1971 hang glider meet (see On this hill, May 23, 1971) Richard Miller flew a wing that pointed the way to the future while 22-year-old engineering student Doug Carmichael flew Miller’s earlier jib-sailed Rogallo wing.
Richard had no problem with the math or the physics of flight. Complicated graphs, charts, equations and structural requirements were second nature to him. When faced with something he didn’t know, however, he would simply pull a pendulum out of his pocket and ask it. Twirling clockwise was yes, counterclockwise was no.
— Doug Carmichael (11)
See Mystical Visionary, Richard Miller under External links later on this page.
In 1970, Matt Colver talked the 15 year old Roy Haggard out of building an expensive radio control sailplane and proposed that he build a hang glider instead. (Matt Colver is the son of Frank Colver — see Sound barrier in Variometers.) Via a phone call Colver described how to build a Batso (a polythene and bamboo Rogallo wing). Haggard jotted it all down and finished building it a little more than a week later. He states that, if he had not known the Colvers, his life would have been very different. (17)
As far as is known to this author, Roy Haggard’s emergency parachute system was the first to be carried aboard a hang glider. For his subsequent innovations, see the Ultralight Products of California and Utah related topics menu.
He says further that he never lost sight of the fact that there was support from all those early 1970s hang glider people. For example, when Pete Brock of Ultralight Products hired him, Dave and Karen Cronk (see Cronk works) put him up for a couple of weeks before he found a place to stay. Tom Price was always there to bounce ideas off… (See Tom Price’s flying machines.)
At that point, I felt like I was the luckiest person in the world, and still do.
— Roy Haggard (17)
Here are the 1971 plans by Taras Kiceniuk Jr. for building a Batso. They were sent to me by long time hang glider pilot Chris Gonzales:
Dick Eipper lived in a small studio in the back of a house in Redondo Beach, California, where he worked on the grass in the backyard building hang gliders from polythene sheet, bamboo, hose clamps, and duct tape. He then found employment with Blue Water Sails in Lomita, where he was able to work on his own projects after hours in their sail loft. (19)
…he was a “people person” with a natural ability to find favor with whomever he was chatting. His appearance on the national Sunday night TV program 60 Minutes, with a very brief segment directly focusing on his unique sport in a short leap off a coastal bluff, propelled Dick into a spotlight among the rest of the HG fliers.
— Neil Larson (18)
See the Eipper Formance of Torrance, California related topics menu.
Ground Skimmer magazine was successor to Low and Slow (by which time they had gained control and shortened the title accordingly). Ground Skimmer was published by the Southern California Hang Glider Association (SCHGA) which grew from the 25-member Peninsula Hang Glider Club, founded by Dick Eipper in December 1971(6) and it eventually became the United States Hang Gliding and Paragliding Association.
On May 23rd, 1971, on a hillside that was part of the Pacific View Memorial Park Cemetery in Newport Beach, a coastal city in Orange County, California, the first organized hang gliding event took place. (The organizers kept a low profile in that troubled time…) For more about this landmark event, see On this hill, May 23, 1971. It includes participants’ recollections and photos as well as links to digitized film.
Jack Lambie sold plans for his Hang Loose in 1971 and he could barely keep up with demand after photos of it appeared in magazines across the USA, and then around the world.
Bill Liscomb became one of the top hang glider pilots of the 1970s. In later life he created the 2008 documentary Big Blue Sky — The history of modern hang gliding – the first extreme sport! I include links to applicable points in his video upload of that documentary on YouTube in the External links sections of this page and other early hang gliding pages.
In 1971 my friends and I would pile into the VW van and drive around Riverside looking for stands of bamboo. When we’d spot some, we’d empty out with our hacksaws and leave with components for a Batso…
Then we discovered aluminum irrigation tubing. 2″ .050 wall, probably 5050 or 5052 T-0. It had little chunks of metal in it that would rust, but we had a hot rod aluminum Batso.
— Bill Liscomb (15)
A bowsprit and cables to hold the wings spread is clearly a lighter structure than cross-tubes on a very wide nose angle flex-wing.
Bamboo and polythene might be adequate for ‘low and slow’ flight, the mantra for which was “Don’t fly higher than you are prepared to fall.” However, heights attained by Rogallos launched behind power-boats with the aid of tow lines and water skis demanded stronger materials. Australian Bill Bennett’s Delta Wing Kites and Gliders, of Van Nuys, California, Dick Eipper’s excruciatingly named company Eipper-Formance, of Lomita, California, and Bill Moyes’ eponymous Moyes Delta Gliders of Australia were the first manufacturers of quality hang gliders.
Even though equipped with wings made of strong materials, the northern California fliers, notably Donnita Holland and brothers Dave and Rich Kilbourne, took obvious risks soaring in strong winds high above inland ridges starting in 1971.
See under Big Blue Sky video external links later on this page for more of Dave Kilbourne.
In contrast, the activities of the southern California fliers, centered on the beaches in the Los Angeles area, looked benign. Regardless, tragedy was bound to strike sooner or later.
In the late summer of 1972, Ed Gardia became one of the first fatalities of modern hang gliding, while flying at Slide Mountain near Lake Tahoe. His glider clipped tree-tops, causing it to stop flying and dive to the ground.(4) There had been two fatalities in auto-tow launches of Rogallos prior to that, but Gardia was the first ‘free flight’ fatality. (*) During the years that followed, the development of this new way of flying caused the loss of some of the most courageous and innovative individuals of their generation. Many of them were still in their twenties when they died (Gardia was 22) and some were younger than that.
Chris Price was an old school friend of the Wills brothers, who played a large part in early hang glider development.
Incidentally, color film of this glider (see under External links later on this page) shows the sail to be black or dark blue with Price’s trademark yellow lightning flashes. For a color painting based on this photo, in which the artist guessed the colors, also see under External links.
Paul Dees was 13 years old when he started flying home-built Rogallo hang gliders in 1972…
I started to meet other pilots in Illinois, Michigan and Missouri–the typical pilot back then was in his 20s and was a free spirit, an adventurer. Many were Vietnam vets and now they could let their hair grow long. To fly free was the best, and nobody could tell any of us to wear a helmet, because you had to feel the wind in your hair. These were the badass kind of people mamas do not like, but who have a very good time. Many of them did not live to become old…
— Paul Dees quoted by C.J. Sturtevant (10)
Dick Boone’s interest in hang gliding was not all that unusual for a college student in the early 1970s.
As a student at the University of Washington, Richard studied mechanical engineering and worked in the university’s aeronautical laboratory. During the summers, he worked in Boeing’s composite fabrication facility in Wichita, Kansas.
However, his career in heavy aircraft design was shortly to be hijacked by his interest in and talent at hang glider design. See the Dick Boone, hang glider designer related topics menu.
There was a energy level within the HG community, you witnessed it at the monthly meetings of the SCHGA at the Gas Co. Building on Flower downtown L.A. In that one location we could all come together & be the members of a real man flight organism of humans. Volmer would show up wearing his ‘uniform’ always shades of Powder Blue.
— Neil Larson (8)
Modern hang gliding has its roots in the 1960s American space program and the efforts of pioneers such as Barry Palmer, John Dickenson, Richard Miller, and Jack Lambie. However, even before World War 2 (1941) Volmer Jensen of Glendale, California, designed, built, and flew hang gliders.
Self-taught aerodynamicist Irv Culver, who designed the thick airfoil section of the VJ-23, had worked with Albert Einstein. (5) Culver worked for Lockheed in World War 2 and, although private company records are largely hidden, he is credited with solving the P-38’s dive recovery problem when accelerated airflow over its wings reached the speed of sound. (12, 13)
As Kelly Johnson’s top man at Lockheed’s ‘Skunk Works’, Irv Culver had been responsible for such diverse machines as the U-2 spyplane, F-104 Starfighter, SR-71 Blackbird and the Cosmic Wind single-seat Goodyear Formula One racers.
— Bob and Karen Grimstead, David Cook pilot profile, Pilot magazine, February 1984
This image, cropped from of a group photo taken at a pilots’ briefing in 1973, is the only photo of George Uveges that I know of.
Bob Lovejoy lived in Torrance. The area is known as South Bay. That’s where a large aerospace & aircraft industry was already established.
— Neil Larson (8)
While working for General Motors in Detroit, Californian Bob Lovejoy was encouraged by a former World War 2 Luftwaffe pilot who shared his ambition to build an inexpensive and lightweight glider. In contrast, after Lovejoy moved back to California and consulted senior engineers at his workplace about the possibility of building such a craft, they informed him that, if it was possible, it would already have been done.
Then he saw a photo of an early hang glider in the Los Angeles Times and, in 1971, he set about designing, building, and flying his own advanced hang gliders, culminating in the Quicksilver. He eventually teamed up with Dave Cronk and the Eipper-Formance factory and they brought it to production standard. (2)
Bob could run ideas through his work at Mattel Toys, make a couple phone calls & do a consult with a half dozen aircraft machine tool & die shops & then spend an afternoon on the beach with any number of Tie Dyed Beautiful People.
— Neil Larson (8)
The Quicksilver was made out of the same materials used in production Rogallo wings; sailcloth, aluminium alloy tube, and steel cable. It used a rudder connected to the pilot’s seat harness to initiate turns. That placed the glider into a skid and the high dihedral then caused the craft to bank.
Was this the future of hang gliding? For more about its development, see Dave Cronk, Bob Lovejoy, and the Quicksilver in Cronk works.
Coincidentally, Bob Lovejoy and Joe Faust, who organized several early 1970s hang glider meets, had competed against each other in high jump. Lovejoy was also an aviation illustrator and some of his work adorned a beach cafe (Orville & Wilbur’s Steak House) where they held a couple of early organizational meetings. (3; 8)
Bob resurfaced in about 1980 and had a small ultralight aircraft under development. During a test flight there was a hardware failure which led to a control problem. Not much is known except it cut his life tragically short.
— Dave Cronk, e-mail correspondence with the author, June 2020
Bob Lovejoy was killed flight testing a powered ultralight of his own design in 1982. (7)
Seventeen year old Taras Kiceniuk Jr. designed and built the Icarus biplane. The resemblance of the scene in this photo to that in the group photo farther on, the black glider, and that the photo was taken by the same photographer suggests that this was taken in December 1971.
Olympic high jumper and early hang glider pilot Joe Faust flight tested the Icarus from the cliff at Torrance Beach…
…about 3 seconds from launch, a slight push back for a slight rounding out of the higher speed, the two wing halves folded on the cockpit and me; my butt hit the hard sandstone and I obtained a memento for life that is fully managed and does not block me from running and jumping and flying. The Icarus I is in the backroom at the Smithsonian Institute waiting for someone to resurrect it. An Icarus II was quickly built by Taras with higher-grade alloy.
— Joe Faust (14)
For more of Taras and his designs, see School for perfection in Hang gliding 1973 part 2. See also under Big Blue Sky video external links and under Playground in the Sky video external links, later on this page for more of Taras.
See also Torrance Beach.
Dick Eipper first flew a hang glider in 1969…
A few months later Dick and I founded Eipper Formance Hang Gliders. A year and a half later we incorporated and brought on Dave Muehl, Mike Huetter, Bob Lovejoy and Dave Cronk as partners.
— Steve Wilson (20)
He was so creative and forward looking – the excitement in his eyes when he got a new idea that would seize his imagination that looked like he was looking way past the mundane world most are rooted in…
— Steve Penny (19)
In this photo I assume the harness riser is hidden behind the down tube. Dick Eipper went on to found hang glider manufacturer, and later powered ultralight manufacturer, Eipper Formance Inc. See the Eipper Formance of Torrance, California related topics menu.
For more of Volmer Jensen and Irv Culver, see the related topics menu VJ day — Volmer Jensen’s hang gliders. Chris Jones is described as “donator of process negatives for this photograph,” whatever that means. ‘Frenchy’ is described as a member of the Imperial Engine Works Club, which I vaguely recall was a predecessor of Eipper-Formance. I hope to update the annotations embedded in this photo when I obtain the identities of others in it. For example, I am sure that is Frank Colver holding the model glider while sitting in the middle of the real thing, only half covered with fabric.
Joe Faust appears to be flying the same wing that Dick Eipper is holding in the annotated group shot, so 1971 or 1972.
This topic continues in Hang gliding 1973 part 1.
Bill Bennett’s Delta Wing Kites and Gliders (related topics menu) which together with Moyes Delta Gliders and Eipper Formance was one of the earliest modern hang glider manufacturers
Eipper-Formance of Torrance, California (related topics menu) which together with Bill Bennett’s Delta Wing Kites and Gliders and Moyes Delta Gliders was one of the earliest modern hang glider manufacturers
Moyes Delta Gliders (related topics menu) which together with Bill Bennett’s Delta Wing Kites and Gliders and Eipper Formance was (and is) one of the earliest modern hang glider manufacturers
Barry Palmer’s early 1960s Rogallo: Hang Gliding, 1960’s style video on YouTube
Doug Carmichael Recalls May 23 1971 on the US Hawks Hang Gliding Association web site: Jib-sailed Rogallo that Richard Miller gave to Carmichael
Early Hang Gliding digitized film by John Elwell on YouTube
F-0838 Free Flight Systems Hang Gliding, 1972, a series of adverts by what was almost certainly the largest hang glider manufacturer in the world at the time, in the San Diego Air and Space Museum Archives YouTube channel
F-0841 Hang Gliding: The New Freedom, 1972, by Ronald B. Underwood, in the San Diego Air and Space Museum Archives YouTube channel
F-0057 Soaring – Frank Allen filmed at Imperial Beach, California, by Channel 10 KOGO NEWS, in the San Diego Air and Space Museum Archives YouTube channel. This pre-dates the similar Hang Loose by ten years.
Hang gliding pioneers video on YouTube with Francis Rogallo, John Dickenson, and Bill Moyes in conversation in 1988
Hang Loose Hang Glider Home Movie on YouTube of a young pilot (passenger is more accurate) being towed up into a stiff breeze in a biplane rigid hang glider
HG Retrospect : 40 Years After Day One by Neil Larson on the US Hawks forum
Ken de Russy YouTube channel of the instructor who runs a hang gliding museum
Orville & Wilbur’s Restaurant, Manhattan Beach (now closed) on Facebook
Painted history of hang glider design on Brave guys and beautiful dolls for a color painting based on the photo of Chris Price ground skimming
Quicksilver: 70s and 80’s Hang Gliding digitized film by Majic Man on YouTube starting at 9 minutes 11 seconds
Big Blue Sky video external links
These are links to Big Blue Sky — The history of modern hang gliding – the first extreme sport!, 2008, documentary by Bill Liscomb on YouTube:
First to Fly, Barry Palmer starting at 5 minutes 11 seconds
Innovative Designs, Taras Kiceniuk starting at 21 minutes 15 seconds
Mystical Visionary, Richard Miller starting at 6 minutes 29 seconds
Volmer Jensen flying the VJ-23: Big Blue Sky starting at 35 minutes 17 seconds
Playground in the Sky video external links
These are links to Playground in the Sky, 1977, by Carl Boenish on YouTube (low resolution):
Chris Price flying the glider in the ‘ground skimmer’ photo and the painting derived from it: Playground in the Sky starting at 43 minutes 32 seconds
Dave Cronk flying his Cronkite, followed by Volmer Jensen in the VJ-23, then Taras in the Icarus 2 and Icarus 5…: Playground in the Sky starting at 25 minutes 19 seconds
Francis Rogallo learns to fly the invention that bears his name: Playground in the Sky starting at 40 minutes 29 seconds
1. Vic Powell in Hang Gliding, September 1991
2. Evolution of the Quicksilver by Bob Lovejoy, Ground Skimmer July-September 1974
3. Text accompanying a print of a photo of Lovejoy flying the Hightailer; a predecessor of the Quicksilver
4. Ed Gardia discussion on US Hawks forum
5. Skunk Works’ Irven Culver Dies by Elaine Woo, Los Angeles Times, September 17, 1999
6. Peninsula Hang Glider Club and SCHGA: Dan Poynter writing in Hang Gliding by Martin Hunt and David Hunn, Pelham Books, London, 1977
7. Bob Lovejoy fatality: Product Lines by Dan Johnson in Whole Air No. 27 November-December 1982
8. HG Retrospect : 40 Years After Day One by Neil Larson on the US Hawks forum
9. Pilots’ briefing near San Ysidro, California: Ground Skimmer, September 1972
10. The ‘Bad Old Days’ of Hang Gliding, A Coming-of-age Story by C.J. Sturtevant in Hang Gliding & Paragliding, January 2015
11. Doug Carmichael Recalls May 23 1971 on US Hawks Hang Gliding Association
12. Irv Culver – An engineer’s engineer on Soaring Society of America
13. Irven H. Culver topic in U.S. Hang Gliding Pilots section of US Hawks Hang Gliding Association
14. Post by Merlin on US Hawks forum
15. Two replies by Bill Liscomb in this Facebook post by Jonathan Dietch in 2021
16. Dick Boone, Richard Louis Boone, on the US Hawks forum
17. Roy Haggard communication via e-mail in March 2020
18. USHPA / USHGA / SCHGA Member # 1 Dick Eipper by Neil Larson on U.S. Hawks forum
19. Steve Penny reply in USHPA / USHGA / SCHGA Member # 1 Dick Eipper on U.S. Hawks forum
20. Deltaplane : Unknown / Inconnu comments on Delta Club 82
Nowadays we use winches, vehicles, and powered ultralights to launch hang gliders, but in those days the SCHGA considered auto-towing too unsafe and discouraged it.